Calibrated Thermocouple.

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Thermocouple and Thermo Wells

Wide Variety of Thermocouple with necessary fittings to meet all your custom requirements. High Temperature thermocouple for forging industry in India.

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Manufacturing Precision thermocouple in India is a part of the complete process but not the complete process.

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All type of Precision thermocouple available, High Temperature reading upto 1200 degree celcius.
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    Exposed Type

    Lenght: 1m
    Temperature Range: 0°C-850°C
    Shielding: N/A.

    Price: Rs 29

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    Spring loaded

    Lenght: 1m
    Temperature Range: 0°C-900°C
    Shielding: Steel Braid.

    Price: Rs 59

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    Probe Type

    Lenght: 1m
    Temperature Range: 0°C-900°C
    Shielding: Steel Braid.

    Price: Rs 59

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    Mini Head

    Lenght: 1m
    Temperature Range: 0°C-900°C
    Shielding: Steel Braid.

    Price: Rs 59

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  • Image

    Mini Head

    Lenght: 1m
    Temperature Range: 0°C-900°C
    Shielding: Steel Braid.

    Price: Rs 59

Watch Detailed Video

What is a Thermocouple?

Almost 200 Years ago Thomas Johann Seebeck accidentally noticed that magnetic field is produced in a wire when both ends are kept at different temperature.Thermocouple India has create a small and detailed timeline on this great Inventor. Discovery was later refined to say that charge flows through the wire when two ends are at different temperatures. They made Two crucial observations. 1)The Voltage produced was Proportional to the temperature difference 2)Different Material have different charge flow direction (Seebeck Coefficient).

Seebeck Coefficient is different for different material. Positive for some and negative for some. You can find a chart of Seebeck coefficient here. Using the Seebeck chart for reference, a suitable pair of material can be selected to create a temperature-based voltage generator. Voltage Generation typically involves combing a positive and negative Seebeck material. We at INDRAM THERMOCOUPLE INDIA use this to make Termocouples

Thermocouple Defined: The Thermocouple is formed when two conductors of different materials with Seebeck coefficient are joined at one end and open at other. When the junction is exposed to different temperature in comparison to the two open ends, a voltage proportional to the temperature difference is generated. Dr. Seebeck conducted multiple tests on various materials.He arranged the test results today known as ThermoElectric series.200 years ago, this information was not very useful as signal amplification and processing was a challange. But this tiny mili-Volt signal is now used to take temperature readings. Simple opAms can amplify the output signal for suitable processing. Thermocouple India offers small and ultra low costsignal processors for industrial Application

Signal Processing: Output readings from thermocouple can be amplified but not used directly to display temperature. You may ask why? If you notice from the above description of Mr Seebeck the Voltage produced is proportional to the Temperature difference. So the output is only the difference in temperature, not the exact temperature. The market is filled with processors that give direct temperature output. The typical industrial transmitters use the 4-20 Current loop system to send readings over km long wire's. But how do they calculate exact temperature?

Calculating Temperature: Now that we know that thermocouple gives only the difference in temperature we need to figure out a way to make sense of the output. It is not tricky, simple Maths. The output is the difference between the temperature at the junction and the Terminals. The Terminals are usually at room temperature. Hence if we know the Room Temperature and the output from the thermocouple, we can add them.

Junction Temperature Formula : Thermocouple Temperature + Room Temperature = Junction Temperature. Trust me This is not rocket science just Maths.

Cold Junction Compensation: There is one less popular way to do this calculation. The process is called cold junction compensation. Two junctions are used in this case. One is the junction that we have measure and the other junction with a known temperature—usually a melting Ice tub. As the Cold junction compensates for the output from the other junction,the output from this setup can be calibrated for direct temperature measurement. Since carrying an ice tub everywhere is impractical and not used, we do not discuss details on it.

Thermocouple Types: Different material have a different output for the same temperature difference. This makes it a challenge to choose the correct material. NIST provides measured and interpolated reading for different materials. Based on this information, different Thermocouple Types are categorised. More details of types of thermocouple.

All type of thermocouple can have different grades, Class and Connection Types.

Grades of Temperature Sensor

Thermocouple Grade
The material used in this part of the sensor is usually rated for its full potential. The material and shielding are designed to handle extreme temperatures. This part of the sensor is designed to handle sharp temperature differences and can survive multiple heat-cold cycles. This part of the sensor is typically the most expensive part of the sensor system. In most cases, the output from this sensor is directly fed to the processor for collecting readings. The point of contact between the sensor and processor has another high precision temperature sensor to compensate for the cold junction.
Extension Grade
There are times that the reading has to be collected from multiple parts of the processing plant. The main central control room is located at some distance from the processing plant's core specially in India. In those cases, the sensor wire has to be extended. Even though the same thermocouple grade wire can be extended to reach the plant control room, it is unnecessary, as the outside temperature is usually room temperature. Running thermocouple grade wire designed for high temperature in normal temperature zones is a waste of resource as they are expensive and designed to work at high temperatures. In similar situations, the extension grade thermocouple comes is considered. This material is usually the same composition as the Thermocouple grade but tested for very low temperatures. Usually, 100 degrees C. Since this extension grade wires are not designed to survive at high temperatures the cost of manufacturing for this part of the sensor is far less than that of the typical thermocouple grade wire.
Compensation Grade
In some cases, the control room has to be moved at safer distances. Mostly the case with Space and Defence project where the threat is unpredictable and test has to be done in insecure zones. The control system and processors are located at a safe distance in case a failure has to occur. In those case, a different type of wires is used. This wires are not very low on the cost compared to the extension grade but serve a crucial purpose. It is simple physics that when the length of a wire increases its resistance also increases. This increase in resistance leads to voltage drop. In a practical thermocouple measurement system, the wire resistance across the terminals should not be more than 100 Ohms. To achieve low resistance, using a thick pair of specialised copper wire is recommended. One leg made of copper and the other leg made of copper-nickel alloy. The further you want to go, the thicker should be the cross-section of the wire. Wire Cross-section Guide

Class of Thermocouple

Tolerance is an integrated part of any measurement and engineering system. There is no exception to the thermocouple. Below are the standards that a sensor has to meet to fall into its respective class. Every thermocouple is classified into one of three categories or classes.
Class 2
Class 2 category of a thermocouple is the most common type, and more than 90% of the thermocouple fall into this specific category. Per IEC standards, this category of thermocouple should have a tolerance of 2.2% for a given range. So a 1000 degree C sensor can read 1002 and 998 to stay within limits.
Class 1
Class 1 is a more precise version of class 2 and runs at a tolerance of 1.1% of the total gradient. For a thermocouple to fall in the class 1 category a 1000°C thermocouple can read 1001 or 999 to fall within specs.
Quater Class-Ultra Precision
A new generation of thermocouple has emerged called the Quater class. This is ultra-precision Aerospace grade thermocouple. This run at an even tighter tolerance of 0.25%. Quater Class is a rare variant and used primarily in research projects.

Connection Type

Thermocouples are simple devices with two wires. One has a positive charge, and the other has negative. Depending on the type of connection to the ground, the thermocouple can be put into four major categories.
Grounded(Common Ground)
The grounded thermocouple has the main sensing point/junction in common with the system ground or mains ground. This configuration makes the system exceptionally responsive, and every change in temperature is updated at a faster pace. The downside to this type of thermocouple is that it can not be used in situations where the common ground(system ground) and negative thermocouple lead are connected. Common ground will short one lead of the sensor. Common ground is recommended for systems with isolated input provision.
Un Grounded(Isolated)
There are numerous events when the system is sharing common ground with the thermocouple ground. This is the perfect time to use an ungrounded thermocouple. The sensing point of the thermocouple is concealed and isolated electrically from the body of the thermocouple. This isolation makes it possible to take better readings from a surface that is grounded.
Mineral Insulated
The typically ungrounded thermocouple is isolated from the ground, which provides electrical isolation. Thermocouples have one problem that has to be considered (Corrosion). Ungrounded thermocouples are insulated from the electricity, but they are still not able to protect the junction from air, moisture and oxidation. To save the thermocouple from failing before time, that is concealed in magnesium oxide powder.
Exposed Connector
When a thermocouple junction is visible without any shielding or insulation, the type is called exposed. The exposed type thermocouple has thin cross-section and can deliver more precise and fast reeding of the surface they touch. One major limitation of an exposed type thermocouple is that it is more prone to corrosion and is not recommended for highly active environments.

Thermocouple Temperature Range & Material's

Thermocouple Type Temperature Range Material (+) Material (-)
K Type −200°C to +1350°C Chromel Alumel
J Type −40°C to +750°C Iron Eureka
T Type −200°C to 350°C Copper Eureka
R Type 0°C to 1600°C PtRh Pt
N Type −270°C to +1300°C Nicrosil Nisil
B Type 50°C to 1800°C PtRh* PtRh*
E Type −50°C to +740°C Chromel Eureka
M Type -50°C to 1400°C NiMo NiCo
S Type -40°C to 1700°C PtRh Pt
C Type 0°C to 2329℃ WRe5% WRe26%
D Type 0°C to 2400℃ WRe3% WRe25%
G Type 1000°C to 2300℃ W WRe
P Type 500°C to 1400°C PdPtAu AuPd

Colour Code for Thermocouple & Extension Cables

Thermocouple Type Sensitivity Colour IEC Colour ASIN
K Type 41 µV/°C Green Yellow
J Type 50 µV/°C Black Black
T Type 43 µV/°C Brown Blue
R Type 10µV/°C Orange Green
N Type 39µV/°C Pink Orange
B Type 6.5µV/°C Grey Grey
E Type 68µV/°C D-Pink Pink
M Type 49µV/°C Orange N/A
S Type 9.5µV/°C Orange Green
C Type 17µV/°C N/A N/A
D Type 18.5µV/°C N/A N/A
G Type 16µV/°C N/A N/A
P Type 41µV/°C N/A N/A
sensitivity colourcode extensionColourCode

Thermocouple Related Information

Thermocouple Metals?
Temperature Sensor

Different materials possess different Seebeck coefficient. Suitable pair of material is selected considering the cost and accuracy. This pair is called the couple.

Types of Thermocouple!
Types of Sensor

There is no fixed variety of thermocouple as you can build your own using the thermal properties of the material, but a total of 12 types are documented for use

What is RTD?
Resistance Temperature Detector

The resistance of metals change with the change in temperature. Some material has a massive change in resistance, while others possess small change. RTD shows a significant change in resistance for small temperature change

What is Seebeck Effect?
Thomas Johann Seebeck

Scientists spend much time in research, and every discovery intentional or accidental has changed the fate of humanity. Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered one of those properties of the metal, which change temperature measurement forever.

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