The Seebeck effect
Seebeck effect, Thomas Johann Seebeck, ThermoElectric Series

The Seebeck effect

The Seebeck effect is an event where a thermal variation between two dissimilar electrical wires or semiconductors produces a voltage potential among the two conductors.

Thomas Johann Seebeck was the man behind the discovery almost 200 years ago. Seebeck effect explains the generation of an electromotive force (emf) and subsequently an electrical current flow, in a loop of conductor composed of two different conductors when there is a temperature gradient on the two joints. The conductors are metals, even though they need not be solids. If the set is connected via an electrical circuit, direct current (DC) flows through that circuit.
Seebeck effect is so mild that you will need to move your multimeter to microvolt setting to take acceptable readings. If the temperature difference is significant enough, some Seebeck-effect apparatus can create a few millivolts (thousandths of a volt). Numerous devices can be connected in series or in parallel to increase the deliverable current. The Seebeck effect is used to measure temperature with wonderful sensitivity and precision (see thermocouple) and to generate electric power for specific applications.
Seebeck material produces a potential difference. This produced voltage is very small, but it comes with an awesome advantage. If this material is connected in series, the energy can be moved to an acceptable level for use. Seebeck effect is accountable for the behaviour of thermocouples. This behaviour can be utilised to gauge temperature differences approximately or to actuate automatic switches that could control large systems. This capacity is used in cooling technology. Commonly used metal combinations include constantan/copper, constantan/iron, constantan/chromel and constantan/alumel. A well-known phenomenon Peltier effect is the reverse of the Seebeck effect;

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